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Glossary

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A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P R S T U V

A

Adrenalin A hormone produced by the adrenal medulla.
Aflatoxin A carcinogenic metabolite
Allergen Which produces an allergic reaction
Allograft Grafting or transplanting an organ or tissue from one person to another who does not share the same transplantation on antigens.
Amenorrhoea Absence of the menses.
Anaerobic A micro-organism
Anorexia Loss of appetite
Antigen Any substance which under favourable conditions, can stimulate the production of antibodies
Aphthous Ulcers Type of ulcers in the mouth
Arterioles A small artery, joining an artery to a capillary.
Arterioselerosis A gradual loss of elasticity in the walls of arteries due to the thickening and calcification.
Atheroma Hardening of arteries
Atherosclerosis A form of hardening of the arteries
Ascites Free fluid in the peritoneal cavity. It is an abnormal condition.
Asthma A condition characterized by wheezing & difficulty in expiration because of muscular spasm in the bronchi.
Atrophy Wasting, emaciation, diminution in size of normally developed organ.
Azotaemia The accumulation of urea in the blood.

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B

B-Carotene Precursor of vitamin A
Bactericidal That which kills bacteria
Bacterostatic That which inhibits bacterial growth
Bile A bitter alkaline, viscid, greenish yellow fluid secreted by the liver and stored in the gall bladder. It contains water, mucin, lecithin, cholesterol, bile salts and the pigments bilirubin and biliverdin.
Biotin A vitamin belonging to the vitamin B group

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C

Caecum The blind, pouch like commencement of the colon the right lilac fossa
Calories A standard unit of heat. Used to denote physiological values of various food substances
Carcinogens Substances that cause cancerous changes in normal cells
Caries Decay of teeth
Casien The chief protein of milk. It forms a curd from which cheese is made
Choleithiasis The presence of stones in the gall bladder or bile ducts
Chlorophyll Green colouring matter which assists in photosynthesis in plants
Citric Acid The acid present in lemons
Colostrum The relatively clear fluid secreted in the breasts during the first three days after parturition, before the formation of true milk is established
Collagen The main protein constituent of white fibrous tissue
Congenital Applied to conditions existing at or before birth
Conjunctiva The delicate transparent membrane which lines the inner surface of the eyelids and reflects over the front of the eyeballs.
Cornea The outwardly convex transparent membrane forming part of the anterior outer coat of the eye. It is situated in front of the iris & pupil and merges backward into the sclera
Coronary The vessels which supply blood to the heart muscles.
Convulsions Involuntary contractions of muscles resulting from abnormal cerebral stimulation which have many causes.

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D

Dimineralisation Reduction in the mineral content
Denaturation Change the Nature
Desquamated Shedded off
Diverticula An abnormal out pouching of tissue

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E

Ectopic Out of place
Eicosapentanoic Acid Type of substance that inhibits platelet aggregation.
Electrolytes A substance which can be decomposed by electrolyses
Emaciation Excessive wasting of body tissues
Embryo The fertilized ovum in its earliest stages until it shows human characteristics during the second month.
Emphysema The abnormal presence of air in tissues or cavities of the body
Encephalins Neurotransmitters responsible for certain functions of the brain
Encephalopathy Disordered brain functioning due to the metabolic or other influences
Endemic The term applied to any disease prevalent in a particular locality
Endocrine Applied to those glands whose secretion flow directly into blood or Iymph and greatly modify bodily development.
Endorphins Neurotransmitter responsible for certain functions of the brain
Endosperm Inner pan of seeds
Enzymes Catalyst
Epiphysis The end of a long bone developed separately but attached by cartilage to the diaphysis, with which it eventually unites
Epithelium The surface layer of skin, lining tissues or cells
Ergometry Test to assess muscle fatiguability
Eructations Belching
Erythema Superficial redness of the skin
Estriol Estrone, Estradiol—oestrogen—Female sex hormones

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F

Ferritin Form of Iron
Foetus The name given to the developing embryo between 8-40 weeks of pregnancy
Fibrosis Fibrous tissue formation as occurs in scar tissue or as a result of inflammation
Fissure-in-ano A cleft, a painful crack in the mucous membrane of the anus, generally caused by injury from hard faeces.
Flatulence The presence of gas in the stomach
Folate/Folic Acid A constituent of the vitamin B complex which influences red blood cell formation

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G

Gall Bladder Stones A stone in the gall bladder. A tissue sac which stores and concentrates bile. Situated just below the liver.
Genetics The study of heredity and natural development
Geriatric The study and treatment of the diseases of old age
Giardiasis An infection that causes persistent mild diarrhoea
Globulin A protein constituent of the blood and cerebrospinal fluid
Glomerulonephritis Inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney following a streptococcal infection
Glycogen The form in which carbohydrate is stored in the liver & muscle
Goitre Enlargement of the thyroid gland causing a swelling in the front of neck
Gout A metabolic disorder associated with an excess of uric acid in the blood

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H

Haemoglobin Compound in red blood cells responsible for carrying oxygen and carbon dioxide
Haemorrhoids Piles
Hepatitis Infection and inflammation of the liver
Hiatus Hernia Herniation of the intestinal contents through the diaphragm into the thorax
Homeostatic Normalizing
125-Hydroxycholecalciferol Vitamin D
Hyperacidity Heartburn, excess of stomach acid
Hyperammonaemia Excess ammonia in the blood
Hypercholestorolaemia High blood cholesterol
Hyperglycemia High blood sugar
Hyperphosphataemia High phosphate levels in the blood
Hypersucrophagy Excessive consumption of sweets
Hypertension High blood pressure
Hypocalcaemia Low blood calcium levels
Hypocalorie Low calorie content
Hypoglycaemia Low blood sugar
Hypothyroidism Low thyroid functioning
Hysterical A psychological condition

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I

Immunoglobins Protein mediating immune function
Insulin Hormone manufactured by the pancreas to lower blood sugar and help in other metabolism
Irritable Bowel Syndrome Disease characterized by diarrhoea
Ischaemia Lack of blood supply

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K

Kupffer's Cells Defense cells in the liver
Kwashiorkor Protein malnutrition characterized by generalized swelling of the body

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L

Lacrimation Watering of eyes
Lactalbumin Milk protein
Lactaglobulin Milk protein
Lactation Production of milk in the breast
Lactobacilli Bacilli which act on milk to convert it to curd
Lactose Intolerance Deficiency of the enzyme lactose causing fermentation of lactose (milk sugar) in the gut leading to flatulence and diarrhoea
Leucoderma White patches on the skin
Lignin A type of dietary fibre
Lymph Extravascular fluid derived from blood
Lymphatic Vessels carrying Iymph
Lymphoid Tissue Site of manufacture of Iymphocytes
Lymphocytes A type of white blood cell involving in fighting chronic infection
Lymphopoiesis The process of producing Iymphocytes.

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M

Macrophagus Large scanvenger cell in the blood
Marasmus Protein and calorie malnutrition
Menarche The first onset of menstrual period
Meninges Covering of the brain
Mentation The activity of thinking
Megaloblastic Anaemia An anaemia caused by vit. B12 and Folic Acid deficiency and characterized by megaloblasts (large underdeveloped cells).
Menopause Cessation of menstrual periods
Metaplasia Abnormal change in a cell which is characteristic of premalignancy.
Micronutrients Nutrients required in small amounts.
Migraine One sided headaches associated with severe pain, scintillations avoiding of light and associated with nausea and sometimes vomiting.
Mitochondria The powerhouse of the cell.
Mitosis Cell division
Mutogens Influence that changes the character of a cell making it malignant.
Myelin covering of nerves.
Myelomeningocele Herniation of the meninges and the spinal cord from a defect in the spinal cord.
Myocardium Heart muscle

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N

Nausea A sensation of sickness with inclination to vomit
Neonates Term applied to a baby under one month old
Neoplastic (adj.) Neo-Plasia (N) literally, the formation of new tissue.
Nephritis A term embracing a group of conditions in which there is either an inflammatory or an inflammatory like reaction in the kidney
Neuralgia Pain in the distribution of a nerve
Neuritis Inflammation of a nerve
Neuropathy (N) Neuro-Pathic (adj.) relating to disease of the nervous system
Neurones The basic structural unit of the nervous system comprising fibres which convey impulses to the nerve cell
Neutrophils A type of white blood cells
Niacin / Nicotinic Acid One of the essential food factors of Vitamin B Complex.

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O

Oedema Dropsy. An effusion of fluid into the tissue.
Oesophagus The canal that extends from the pharynx to the stomach; it is about 23 cms (9 inches) long.
Opsonisation (N) Opsonin—an antibody which unites with an antigen, usually part of the intact cells, and renders the cells more susceptible to phagocytosis.
Organic Pertaining to an organ associated with life. Organic disease—one in which there is structural change
Osteoarthritis Degenerative stage in which the articular surfaces become worn, osteophytes form at the periphery of the joint surface and loose bodies may result
Osteomalacia Deficiency of vit D. causing softening of bones
Osteomalacia Loss of bone density caused by excessive absorption of Calcium & Phosphorus from the bone.
Ovulation The process of rupture of the mature graafian follicle when the ovum is shed from the ovary

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P

Parkinson's disease A syndrome of mask-like expression, shuffling gait tremor of the limbs and pill rolling movements of the fingers.
Pancreas Abdominal organ which secretes the hormones— insulin & glucagon and also pancreatic juice which contains enzymes that digest fats & proteins
Pantothenic Acid A constituent of the vitamin B complex.
Paraplegia Paralysis of the lower limbs usually including the bladder and rectum
Pasteurisation A process whereby pathogenic organisms in fluid (especially milk) are killed by heat
Peptic Ulcer A non-malignant ulcer in those parts of the digestive tract which are exposed to the gastric secretions.
Periodontal Commonly an inflammatory disease of the peridontal tissues resulting in the gradual loss of the supporting membrane & bone around the tooth
Periosteum The membrane which covers a bone
Peyer's Patches Flat patches of Iymphatic tissue situated in the small intestine but mainly in the ileum; they are the seat of infection in typhoid fever
Pneumonia Invasion of the lungs by micro-organisms causing inflammation
Platelets Thrombocytes (a type of blood cells).
Polyuria Excessive increase in the discharge of urine
Prolactin A milk producing hormone of the anterior lobe of the pituitary body that stimulates the mammary glands.
Proteolytic That which is capable of reducing proteins to an absorbable form
Pseudopodia Protrusion of part of cell serving as a method of locomotion or phagocytosis
Pteroylglutamic Acid Folic acid
Ptyalin The enzyme (amylase) in saliva which splits starches
Pyridoxine Vitamin B6

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R

Renin A proteolytic enzyme released into the blood stream; when the kidney is ischaemic it causes vaso-constriction .
Rheumatoid Arthritis Type of joint swelling with pain.
Rheology Study of flow mechanism
Riboflavin A chemical factor in Vitamin B Complex
Rickets A deficiency disease caused by lack of vitamin D

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S

Salmonella A genus of bacteria that are parasites of the intestinal tract of man and animals.
Saprophytic Bacilli Bacilli bred in and living on putrefying matter
Scabies Contagious skin disease caused by the itch mite
Sciatia Pain down the back of the leg in the area supplied by the sciatic nerve
Spina Bifida A congenital defect of non-union of one or more vertebral arches allowing protrusion of meninges & possibly their contents
Spirochaeta Micro-organisms in the form of a spiral. They are motile.
Spleen A very vascular Iymphoid organ situated in the left hypochondrium under the border of the stomach. It manufactures Iymphocytes & breaks down red blood corpuscles
Spondylosis Ankylosis of vertebral joints
Stroke Term used to describe the sudden onset of symptoms especially those of cerebral origin.
Syphilis A specific contagious venereal disease transmitted by sexual intercourse
Systolic Pertaining to the contraction of the heart

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T

Tachycardia Abnormally rapid action of the heart & consequent increase in pulse rate
Taenia Saginata The common type of tapeworm found in the human intestine
Taenia Solium The pork tapeworm that can also be parasitic in man
Testosterone Hormone produced by the testes which stimulates the development of sex characteristics
Tetany An increased excitability of the nerves due to the lack of available calcium accompanied by painful muscle spasm
Theine The alkaloid found in tea
Theobromine The alkaloid from Theobroma whose action is similar to that of caffeine
Thermolabile One that can be destroyed by heat
Thiamine Vitamin Bl
Thrombosis The formation of a stationary blood clot caused by coagulation of the blood usually in a vein
Thymus A gland like structure situated in the upper thorax and neck
Trace Elements Elements required in very minute quantities
Tranquillizers Drugs that allay anxiety & have calming effect
Triglyceride Esters of glycerol & the fatty acids, palmitic, oleic & stearic
Trypsin A digestive enzyme converting protein into amino acids
Trypthophan/e One of the essential amino acids
Tuberculin Test An intradermal injection of old tuberculin to determine susceptibility to tuberculosis
Tyramine An enzyme present in cheese, broad bean pods, yeast extracts, wine and strong beer

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U

Ulcerative Colitis A condition of inflammation & ulceration of the colon of unknown cause
Uraemia A condition of high blood urea, muscle weakness and increasing drowsiness
Urea-Carbamide A white crystalline substance which is the chief nitro genous constituent of urine
Uric Acid Lithic acid—a normal constituent of urine.

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V

Vascular Relating to or consisting largely of vessel
Vasospastic Causing spasm in an artery

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